作者：Aviv Karnieli Shai Tsesses Renwen Yu Nicholas Rivera Ady Arie Ido Kaminer Shanhui Fan
Cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED), wherein a quantum emitter is coupled to electromagnetic cavity modes, is a powerful platform for implementing quantum sensors, memories, and networks. However, due to the fundamental tradeoff between gate fidelity and execution time, as well as limited scalability, the use of cavity-QED for quantum computation was overtaken by other architectures. Here, we introduce a new element into cavity-QED – a free charged particle, acting as a flying qubit. Using free electrons as a specific example, we demonstrate that our approach enables ultrafast, deterministic and universal discrete-variable quantum computation in a cavity-QED-based architecture, with potentially improved scalability. Our proposal hinges on a novel excitation blockade mechanism in a resonant interaction between a free-electron and a cavity polariton. This nonlinear interaction is faster by several orders of magnitude with respect to current photon-based cavity-QED gates, enjoys wide tunability and can demonstrate fidelities close to unity. Furthermore, our scheme is ubiquitous to any cavity nonlinearity, either due to light-matter coupling as in the Jaynes-Cummings model or due to photon-photon interactions as in a Kerr-type many-body system. In addition to promising advancements in cavity-QED quantum computation, our approach paves the way towards ultrafast and deterministic generation of highly-entangled photonic graph states and is applicable to other quantum technologies involving cavity-QED.